Margaret Avery Company from time to time embarks on a research program when a special project seems to offer possibilities. In 2010, the company expends $325,000 on a research project, but by the end of 2010, it is impossible to determine whether any benefit will be derived from it.
(a) What account should be charged for the $325,000, and how should it be shown in the financial statements?
(b) The project is completed in 2011, and a successful patent is obtained. The R&D costs to complete the project are $130,000 ($36,000 of these costs were incurred after achieving economic viability). The administrative and legal expenses incurred in obtaining patent number 472-1001-84 in 2011 total $24,000. The patent has an expected useful life of 5 years. Record these costs in journal entry form.
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(c) In 2012, the company successfully defends the patent in extended litigation at a cost of $47,200, thereby extending the patent life to December 31, 2019. What is the proper way to account for this cost?
(d) Additional engineering and consulting costs incurred in 2012 required to advance the design of a new version of the product to the manufacturing stage total $60,000. These costs enhance the design of the product considerably, but it is highly uncertain if there will be a market for the new version of the product. Discuss the proper accounting treatment for this cost.