One neglected term in our equations for the heat capacity is the electronic contribution. At…

One neglected term in our equations for the heat capacity is the electronic contribution. At typical temperatures, this is not an important term for most covalent solids because the thermal energy at 1000 K is still less than 0.1 eV (typical electronic excitation energies for covalent molecules are greater than 1 eV). However, metals have their conduction and valence bands extremely close in energy, and the valence band excited states are easily accessible. herefore metals have a contribution to the heat capacity additional to the Debye contribution for vibrational energy. his electronic term turns out to be roughly linear in temperature, and the low temperature molar heat capacity may be approximated by the Debye-Sommerfeld equation

Use this equation to ind an equation for Eelec, the electronic energy of the solid, as a function of T.

 

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