[Instant Help From 10$/Pg] Étatyahuza Flatioupol 404 Senior

[Instant Help From 10$/Pg] Étatyahuza Flatioupol 404 Senior

Final paper instructions Write in a case study form ( should include qualitative or quantitative data) . —This is an academic paper –No abstract for this academic paper. Write a 24 page paper

Final paper instructions 

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Write in a case study form ( should include qualitative or quantitative data) . —This is an academic paper   –No abstract for this academic paper.  

Write a 24 page paper based on this literature review. 

 ”  Environmental Scarcity as an Indirect Cause of Coup d’État

Yahuza Flatiou

POL 404 Senior Seminar 

Environmental Scarcity as an Indirect Cause of Coup d’État

Thesis Statement

Environmental scarcity and coups are linked indirectly via weak institutions, economic factors, and French colonialism, according to this research analysis. The review examines the literature for gaps, agreement, and disagreement. It also underlines the topic’s relevance given ongoing coups in French colonies including Niger, Mali, and Burkina Faso.


Throughout history, coups d’états have been responsible for instigating political upheaval, frequently characterized by the sudden and forceful usurpation of governmental power. These events have been especially prevalent in challenging geographical regions. The occurrence of successive coups in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso might be attributed to the prevailing political turbulence in these countries. Given the potential for coups to expose the intricate dynamics of political instability, it is imperative for researchers and policymakers to have a comprehensive understanding of the underlying factors that precipitate such events. This literature study sheds light on the indirect correlation between coup d’état occurrences and environmental degradation. This study aims to examine the idea that environmental scarcity, namely unpredictable rainfall patterns and rivalry over resources, has an indirect but substantial impact on the occurrence of coups. Political and societal forces are often identified as primary catalysts. This literature review critically analyzes the current body of research pertaining to the intricate interplay between environmental scarcity and coups. Specifically, it investigates the ways in which inadequate institutional frameworks, economic constraints, and the historical context of French colonialism connect with environmental concerns. This study aims to analyze prominent research articles and their respective conclusions in order to enhance our comprehension of political upheavals within the framework of environmental shortage.

Literature Review

In recent years, the literature on environmental Scarcity and conflict has grown significantly, with scientists investigating the complicated link between environmental stresses and many types of conflict, such as civil wars, community disputes, and political instability. This section will provide an overview of significant research and their results on the relationship between environmental shortage and conflict.

Fjelde and Von Uexkull (2012) research throws insight into the complex link between environmental deprivation and community strife in Sub-Saharan Africa. By concentrating on rainfall anomalies, the study emphasizes how unpredictable rainfall patterns hinder access to essential resources such as water and arable land. In reaction to Scarcity, communities may resort to violent assaults to secure these critical resources. Furthermore, the research emphasizes that the influence of rainfall anomalies on community strife is increased in locations with politically excluded ethnopolitical groupings. This study demonstrates how environmental shortage and wildly irregular rainfall indirectly lead to the escalation of conflicts among impacted communities.

The thorough research by Hendrix and Salehyan (2012) expands our knowledge of the link between environmental conditions and various kinds of conflict. Their study covers large-scale events such as protests, riots, strikes, and community strife and smaller-scale examples such as anti-government violence by evaluating departures from typical rainfall patterns. Their results show that rainfall unpredictability has a considerable influence on both big and small political disputes. Furthermore, the research underlines that severe variations in rainfall, whether resulting in droughts or abundant rain, have a favorable relationship with all forms of political conflict. This study emphasizes the far-reaching effect of environmental variables, demonstrating how they may emerge in many kinds of conflict at diverse scales.

Masara’s (2021) research questions commonly held beliefs about the relationship between environmental shortage and conflict, especially in Africa. While acknowledging the relative truth of Thomas Homer-Dixon’s Environmental Conflict Theory, Masara contends that resource abundance, rather than Scarcity, is more critical in stoking violent conflicts on the African continent. This viewpoint emphasizes a comprehensive understanding of the problem, implying that resource scarcity is exacerbated not just by Scarcity but also by variables such as resource depletion, degradation, societal divides, fast population increase, and the intricate interaction of these aspects. It emphasizes the multidimensional nature of the interaction between environmental circumstances and conflict dynamics, emphasizing the need to use a holistic approach when examining such situations.

Hendrix, Gates, and Buhaug (2016)’s detailed study of environmental conditions, resource constraints, and civil conflicts is crucial to comprehending this complex topic. They provide a critical perspective on the prevailing narrative that environmental scarcity exacerbates domestic armed conflicts by inciting disputes over limited natural resources. Their research stresses the importance of political, social, and economic factors in this connection’s effects. According to the linked reading, Homer-Dixon’s theories support this approach. Homer-Dixon emphasizes how ecological marginalization, unequal access to rich land, and population growth may cause subsistence crises and conflicts. This supports Hendrix, Gates, and Buhaug’s need for a comprehensive environmental scarcity study.

Kuerschner’s (2013) study on West African warfare illuminates the region’s ongoing turbulence. The history is full of civil wars, coups, and ethnic and religious conflicts. Poverty, political tyranny, corruption, and external participation exacerbate these disputes. This historical view shows that West African battles are periodic, deeply rooted, and influenced by many factors, including environmental issues. This historical backdrop is essential to understanding these nations’ present stability and peace issues.

Gaye’s (2018) in-depth investigation of farmer-herder conflicts in Mali and Burkina Faso gives crucial insights into the various environmental shortages and conflict mechanisms. The research emphasizes the critical role that resource rivalry, ethnic tensions, and violent cross-border conflicts play in intensifying these conflicts. Furthermore, it illuminates how these local resource conflicts link with the growth of extremist groups in the Sahel area. This study graphically depicts the deep links between environmental shortage and different types of conflict, ranging from minor conflicts to the larger regional context. This highlights the intricate web of causes that contribute to these Sahelian states’ continuous instability and problems.

Homer-Dixon’s study supports the idea that ecological marginalization and uneven access to fertile land may actually serve as catalysts for subsistence crises and subsequent wars. His research highlights the complex interaction of issues such as population expansion, the deterioration of arable land, and a lack of economic possibilities, which forces rural communities to relocate to cities or marginal regions. This phenomenon, driven by need, not only degrades the environment but also perpetuates chronic poverty. The cumulative influence of these processes may eventually drive chronic societal upheavals and massive migrations, worsening instability and further destabilizing already fragile areas.


The literature study shows that environmental Scarcity impacts coup d’états indirectly via various factors, including community strife, resource rivalry, and economic constraints. While there is no agreement on the direct causality of coups by environmental variables, these studies emphasize the relationship’s complexities. Weak institutions, inequities in economic opportunity, and the historical setting of French colonialism all play essential roles in defining the political scene of African French colonies. Understanding these dynamics is critical for policymakers aiming to address the core causes of political instability in these areas and support long-term conflict resolution techniques. Further study should concentrate on particular case studies in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso to give a more in-depth examination of coup dynamics in these countries concerning environmental shortage.


Fjelde, H., & Von Uexkull, N. (2012). Climate triggers: Rainfall anomalies, vulnerability and communal conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. Political Geography, 31(7), 444-453.

Gaye, S. B. (2018). Conflicts between farmers and herders against a backdrop of asymmetric threats in Mali and Burkina Faso. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Peace and Security, Centre of Competence Sub-Sharan Africa.

Hendrix, C. S., & Salehyan, I. (2012). Climate change, rainfall, and social conflict in Africa. Journal of peace research, 49(1), 35-50.

Hendrix, C., Gates, S., & Buhaug, H. (2016). Environment and conflict. What do we know about civil wars, 231-46.

Masara, W. B. (2021). Environment-Conflict Nexus: The Relevance of Thomas Homer-Dixons Environmental Conflict Theory in Africa. African Journal of Empirical Research, 2(1&2), 170-175.” 

This is the Feedback I’ve gotten from my professor regarding this literature review ((This  review (not study) should identify various claims for why coups d’etat are occurring in the Sahel region. You should note the different arguments made, focusing not on the authors but rather on the arguments, identifying the various authors that support that argument. Thus, a thematic approach. It would be useful in the introduction to provide an explanation for your choice of countries to be studied. Why and how did you choose them? Also, you focus on various arguments that connect scarcities to other variables that cause VC. I wonder, are there no alternative explanations for the outbreak of Coups D’etat? If so, those should be identified. You then can explain why scarcity IN PARTICULAR is, in your view, an important driver. Instead, you seem to focus repeatedly on how everything connects back to the environment. Do all scholars really share this view?  For example, French colonialism? How is that connected to environmental scarcity?Also, if Environmental scarcity was the sole driver, wouldn’t we see the same level of coups across the region regardless of colonial past? Explain. You need to do a better job citing your sources.)) 

The 24 page paper should include Maps/ Figures and they should be numbered, and citations should be shown for each. ( the figures should be important) 

There should be a logical structure within the paper. ( start at one place and end back at that place) 

Introduction should connect to conclusion 

( Introduction should be short. about a page long) 

– There should be a subheading ( Entire paper should be first person singular ) ( Professor said to avoid passive voice) 

Sentences shouldn’t be long. ( for example if the sentences are 3 lines long break it into half)  ( don’t use the words believe or proof) 

– Again whole paper should be 24 pages not including the graphs/tables and citations. 

conclusion should also include cases that can make things better. 

The format for the 24-page paper is. 

                                                  Each part should be labeled. 

Background Information

Literature review 

Methodology (should explain how the analysis will be written and dive into it) 

Analysis (longest part of the paper) 

Discussion (Include recommendations) 

Conclusion (A page or 2) 

In the attached files there is a Thomas Homer-Dixon format which will help in writing the paper. 


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