major competing uses for groundwater water originating from the aquifers now supplying the Guelph population
09/10/2019
Planetary Boundary for Water • Stock & flows • Threats & risks • Peace & conflict •
09/10/2019

ESS 205H1 Confronting Global Change

ESS 205H1 Confronting Global Change

Fresh water! 1

http://www.peanizles.com/2010/06/23/salt-water-shorts/ https://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/p/pond_waters.asp

Today’s Agenda – Freshwater

Outline • Planetary Boundary for Water • Stock & flows • Threats & risks • Peace & conflict • Solutions

Take Home Messages • Planetary boundary for fresh water • Connections to food • Connections to social stability • Solutions!

2

Rockström et al. 2009 Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity. Ecol & Society 14: 32.

In the Anthropocene, we are reaching global limits Planetary Boundaries Super-wicked problem (weeks 2 & 4)

2/6/2019 3

Fig. 1 The conceptual framework for the planetary boundary approach, showing the safe operating space, the zone of uncertainty, the position of the threshold (where one is likely to

exist), and the area of high risk.Modified from (1).

Will Steffen et al. Science 2015;347:1259855Published by AAAS

Water Planetary Boundary

Rockström et al. 2014. The unfolding water drama in the Anthropocene: Towards a resilience-based perspective on water for global sustainability. Ecohydrology 7: 1249-1261.

Today, 2 billion people are at risk of reduced access to freshwater by 2050

Fig. 2 The subglobal distributions and current status of the control variables for (A) biogeochemical flows of P; (B) biogeochemical flows of N; (C) land-system change; and (D)

freshwater use.

Will Steffen et al. Science 2015;347:1259855Published by AAAS

Today’s Agenda – Freshwater

Outline • Planetary Boundary for Water • Stock & flows • Threats & risks • Peace & conflict • Solutions

7

http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/water/gwsw/quantity/learn/what/hc_hydrocycle/hc1_what_is.html

http://ec.gc.ca/eau- water/default.asp?lang=En&n=23CEC266- 0

Biogeochemical Cycle (week 4)

https://conservationontario.ca/fileadmin/pdf/policy-priorities_section/IWM_WaterBudgetOverview_PP.pdfs

Blue Water – rivers, lakes, aquifers Green Water – Water in soils & biomass

http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/water/gwsw/quantity/learn/what/hc_hydrocycle/hc1_what_is.html

Inputs = Outputs Inputs – Outputs = Storage or Loss

Typo – should be 18%

http://www.ec.gc.ca/eau-water/default.asp?lang=en&n=0bbd794b-1#a1

gross water use in Canada of 60 527 million cubic metres

http://www.ec.gc.ca/eau-water/default.asp?lang=En&n=851B096C-1

http://www.unep.org/dewa/vital water/article43.html

Data 1996-2005 Hoekstra, A.Y. & Mekonnen, M.M. (2012) ‘The water footprint of humanity’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(9): 3232–3237.

Freshwater use: country profiles

http://www.unep.org/dewa/vitalwater/article49.html

Virtual Water Balance due to Agricultural & Industrial Trade, 1996-2005

Green – net exporters Red – net importers

Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 50, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands. http://www.waterfootprint.org/?page=files/VirtualWaterFlows

International Trade: The assumed total imported amount of input-water is 64 billion m3/year (2000)

http://www.mlit.go.jp/crd/sewerage/policy/10.html

Today’s Agenda – Freshwater

Outline • Planetary Boundary for Water • Stock & flows • Threats & risks • Peace & conflict • Solutions

19

Projected Water Demand

http://www.mlit.go .jp/crd/sewerage/p olicy/10.html

https://www.wri.org/applications/maps/aqueduct-atlas/#x=142.01&y=-5.37&s=ws!20!28!c&t=waterrisk&w=def&g=0&i=BWS- 16!WSV-4!SV-2!HFO-4!DRO-4!STOR-8!GW-8!WRI-4!ECOS-2!MC-4!WCG-8!ECOV-2!&tr=ind-1!prj-1&l=2&b=terrain&m=group

Current Conditions of Water Stress – 36 countries

Projected Water Stress 2040 – Business as Usual https://www.wri.org/applications/maps/aqueduct-atlas/#x=- 128.83&y=24.93&s=ws!40!28!c&t=waterrisk&w=def&g=0&i=BWS-16!WSV-4!SV-2!HFO-4!DRO-4!STOR-8!GW-8!WRI- 4!ECOS-2!MC-4!WCG-8!ECOV-2!&tr=ind-1!prj-1&l=4&b=terrain&m=projected

http://www4.agr.gc.ca/DW-GS/current-actuelles.jspx?lang=eng&jsEnabled=true

Climate Warming The distribution of biomes related to temperature and precipitation.

http://ossfoundation.us/projects/environment/global-warming/myths/images/changes- future/desertification_map_1920w.jpg/view

http://soils.usda.gov/use/worldsoils/papers/tensionzone-paper.html

Today’s Agenda – Freshwater

Outline • Planetary Boundary for Water • Stock & flows • Threats & risks • Peace & conflict • Solutions

27

Examples

• India & Bangladesh Ganges River • Mexico & U.S. Colorado River • Czech Republic & Hungary Danube • Thailand & Vietnam Mekong • Jordan, Syria, Lebanon & Israel Jordan River

https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/world/2018-03-20/how-solve-global-water-crisis

Nile River • Longest river in world

(6671 km) • 10 countries • Dams

• 80% electricity in Sudan • Aswan Dam in Egypt

• Flood control • Soil quality of flood plain • Disease, ecosystem integrity

• Water quantity • Water quality

Forms of Conflict

• Control of Water Resources (state and non-state actors): where water supplies or access to water is at the root of tensions.

• Military Tool (state actors): where water resources, or water systems themselves, are used by a nation or state as a weapon during a military action.

• Political Tool (state and non-state actors): where water resources, or water systems themselves, are used by a nation, state, or non-state actor for a political goal.

• Terrorism (non-state actors): where water resources, or water systems, are either targets or tools of violence or coercion by non-state actors.

• Military Target (state actors): where water resource systems are targets of military actions by nations or states.

• Development Disputes (state and non-state actors): where water resources or water systems are a major source of contention and dispute in the context of economic and social development.

http://www.thewaterpage.com/conflict.htm, Peter Gleick

Disputes & Treaties

• Last & only war fought specifically over water

• 4500 years ago, Lagash & Umma on Tigris River

Over last 50 years • 37 acute disputes • 157 treaties negotiated & signed

Aaron Wolf

http://www.ifpri.org/2020/focus/focus09/focus09_14.htm

“Shared interests along a waterway seem to consistently outweigh water’s conflict- inducing characteristics.”

• International institutions resilient over time

• Cooperative agreements effective

• Mekong Committee since 1957 • Indus River Commission survived

2 wars

https://www.wri.org/blog/2017/09/water-stress-driving-conflict-and-migration-how-should-global-community- respond

Today’s Agenda – Freshwater

Outline • Planetary Boundary for Water • Stock & flows • Threats & risks • Peace & conflict • Solutions

33

Solutions

https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopme nt/water-and-sanitation/

Safe drinking water & sanitation for all • Public vs private

provision

Solutions: Water Management

• Accounting for water budget • Stocks & flows

• Supply-side management • Increasing or better control of supply

• Demand-side management • Reducing use • Behavioural & technical changes

Flow In – Flow Out = Storage

Solutions 1. Political stability & eradicating poverty • ~800 million people lack safe water supply

• Locally appropriate water supply & treatment

2. Global Water Cooperation • Global governance on water to match global trade

Solutions

3. More crop per drop • Drought resistant crop varieties • Drip irrigation • Rainwater harvesting • Tillage practices

4. Physical infrastructure • Water storage

Nabataean water management Petra, Jordan

Water Footprint – a tool for understanding & conservation

What is WF? oIndicator of fresh water use, accounting

for direct & indirect use How is it calculated? oMeasure water use, direct & indirect Green – precip to land not runoff or recharge Blue – fresh surface & g/w Grey – water pollution (volume of water required to assimilate pollutant load)

http://www.waterfootprint.org/?page=files/home http://www.waterfootprint.org/?page=files/Glossary

National WFs

• Total amount of freshwater used to produce goods & services consumed by country’s population

• Global average: 1385 m3/year/person (1996-2005) • Canada: 2333 m3/year/person

• 21% external (water imported into Canada) • Eritrea: 1089 m3/year/person

• 50% external http://www.waterfootprint.org/?page=files/WaterFootprintsNations

Examples – WF Rice vs Potatoes Rice • 2497 L/kg

• 68% green, 20% blue, 11% grey

Potato • 287 L/kg

• 66% green, 11% blue , 22% grey

Source: Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2010). http://www.waterfootprint.org/?page=files/productgallery

Assignment 5 – Fresh Water

https://mayorguthrie.com/contact-mayor-guthrie/ https://www.google.com/maps/@43.534433,-80.3802484,121774m/data=!3m1!1e3

Glacial Geomorphology

Guelph’s water supply

Figure 5: A drumlin west of the City of Guelph, located between Whitelaw Road and Elmira Roard South. This drumlin is part of the Guelph Drumlin Field. A drumlin is an elongated hill that is shaped like a tear-drop or inverted spoon. It is formed by a glacier that rode over and shaped the underlying unconsolidated till or ground moraine. Image is from Google Earth, November 2/16. https://www.ontariobeneathourfeet.com/rockwood-potholes/

Threats to Groundwater Quality & Quantity

http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/facts/15-045.htm

Solutions for Water Quantity: Water Management

• Accounting for water budget • Stocks & flows

• Supply-side management • Increasing or better control of supply

• Demand-side management • Reducing use • Behavioural & technical changes

Flow In – Flow Out = Storage

Fix leaking pipes!

Water audit Low-flow toilettes & water faucets

Assignment 5 1. How and where does Guelph obtain its drinking water? Use three sentences to describe the source of Guelph’s drinking water supply. You need to cite at least one reference in your explanation. 2. Identify two major competing uses for groundwater water originating from the aquifers now supplying the Guelph population. Cite at least one reference to substantiate the information you obtained for each competing use. 3. Identify two solutions intended to maintain a continued supply of sufficient, clean drinking water for the Guelph area for now and into the future (say 2050, which is within you lifetime!). You could identify one supply-side solution and one demand-side solution. Your solutions need to be realistic and feasible. They can originate from other locations that obtain groundwater or that experience water scarcity. Summarize each solution in three sentences that include one reference each.

 

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